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Type of knowledge: empirical, scientific, philosophical and theological

The difference between empirical, scientific, philosophical and theological knowledge is in how we acquire it.

The empirical knowledge it is also called popular knowledge. It is obtained from interaction and observation of the world.

The scientific knowledge it includes information and facts that are verified through science.

The philosophical knowledge it is born from the reflections that human beings make on subjective issues.

The theological knowledge or religious stands in religious faith and considers it the source of absolute truth.

Type of Knowledge

empirical Scientist philosophical theological
What is It arises from the interaction of human beings with their environment. It includes information and checks through scientific analysis and tests. It arises from reflections on immaterial and subjective issues. It is based on religious faith as absolute truth.
value Evaluative: it is based on personal experiences. Factual: deals with facts and data. Evaluative: attends to hypotheses that cannot be observed. Evaluative: it is based on sacred doctrines.
verification It is verifiable. It is verifiable. It is not verifiable. It is not verifiable.
precision Fallible and inaccurate. Fallible and approximately accurate. Infallible and accurate. Infallible and accurate.
system Not systematic or planned: organized on the basis of experiences. Systematic: It is planned and organized according to a method. Systematic: organizes logical systems of thought and assessment. Systematic: logically organizes a belief system.

What is empirical knowledge?

Also called popular knowledge, it is the knowledge acquired through observation and interaction with the environment It is the result of own experience and common sense and not of scientific verification.

This knowledge does not propose a method for observing the object, nor does it require systematic checks to reach conclusions.

This makes fallible and inaccurate knowledge. However, it can be checked, since it is about things linked to everyday life.

Example: A farmer knows exactly when to plant and harvest as a result of his experience in previous harvests.

You may be interested in knowing more about Rationalism and Empiricism.

What is scientific knowledge?

Scientific knowledge it is related to logic and critical and analytical thinking. It is the knowledge we have about facts analyzed and verified by a method, so that their truth or falsity can be demonstrated.

It is factual knowledge and therefore also fallible and approximately accurate, as new ideas can modify previously accepted theories.

Example: the discovery of penicillin as a medicine to fight infections that threaten humans.

Also know the difference between natural sciences and social sciences.

What is philosophical knowledge?

Philosophical knowledge it is based on reflection and construction of concepts and ideas based on the use of reasoning in the search for knowledge.

Philosophical knowledge arose from the human being’s ability to reflect, mainly on subjective, immaterial issues, concepts and ideas.

Since these are theories that cannot be tested, it is not verifiable and therefore infallible and accurate.

Example: Platonic thought in which there are two opposing worlds, the world of ideas and the sensible world.

What is theological knowledge?

Theological or religious knowledge it is based on religious faith, and affirms that absolute truth resides in this. Based on an organized system of beliefs, the mysteries that surround the human mind are explained.

There is no need for scientific verification because determined truth be accepted under the lens of this type of knowledge. Theological knowledge is infallible and exact because it is a supernatural truth.

Example: The world and men were created by God.

You may also be interested in Atheist and Agnostic

Eliza Arias

Technical review by Eliza Arias

Degree in Letters (2007) and magister scientiae in Linguistics (2013) from the University of the Andes (Venezuela).

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