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How to take care of skin lesions in patients? And Shaio

The skin is the first line of defense who has the body When there is an injury, they activate a multicellular process that helps the recovery of the wound avoiding infections.

It is a natural protective barrier against the external environment, when you suffer an injury generated by cuts, scrapes and hives or more serious things like injuries or surgical incisions, the body is vulnerable to infections or other complications. The best thing is that it has the ability to activate healing mechanisms through a multicellular process, which helps the recovery of the wound by preventing infections.

One of the situations where injuries can occur more frequently is in hospital settings, due to the number of procedures that a body can be subjected to, for example, hospitalizations, surgical procedures or surgeries that can lead to abuse and injuries to the skin

Why the skin of the patients Do you suffer from injuries?

There is 3 types of injuries that can occur when a patient is hospitalized:

  • Pressure injuries: a patient can get bedsores or ulcers from being bedridden for a long time in one position. The characteristics of this type of injury are shown in redness of the skin near the bone (elbows, hip, heels, etc.), inflammation, blisters, and even loss of subcutaneous tissue.

  • Dermatitis lesions: they are generated by moisture problems normally associated with incontinence. These are characterized by present inflammations or erosions on the skin by exposure to body fluids such as urine, faeces, wound exudate, sweat or saliva.

  • Adhesive injuries: They are those caused by poor positioning, inadequate removal or failure to use the correct input for removal. As the name suggests, they are generated by a incorrect evaluation of the skin, choice, application and removal of adhesive elements such as dressings, tapes, electrodes, surgical supplies, among others. It is characterized by compromising the structure and function of the skin, and causing an injury called MARSI (from the English translation of skin damage related to hospital adhesives).

This over time and without proper treatment can lead to more serious complications such as:

Who is most vulnerable to this type of skin injury?

Anyone who has a medical or hospital procedure is at risk of a skin injury, and there are some risk factors that increase that chance:

  • As patients with underlying pathologies or diseases such as diabetes or hypertension.

  • In people at extreme ages (older adult or pediatric patients) they are more likely to have more sensitive skin.

  • With poor nutrition and nutrition as it affects the skin and the healing and healing process.

How to prevent a skin injury?

At the Shaio Clinic Foundation we count on him Healthy Skin Program, aimed at carrying out the assessment in order to reduce the incidence of skin lesions in hospitalized patients, through an adequate record of the conditions of the skin from their admission and carrying out a comprehensive assessment, in order to be able to define the care plan in individual form

This set of protocols and indications helps us unify preventive care criteria in hospitalized patients, and allows us to avoid injuries associated with health care such as pressure sores, dermatitis injuries and the use of adhesives, in addition to reducing the times of ‘hospitalization, and reduce physical, psychological and moral damage in patients,

Prevention of skin injuries caused by pressure:

  • Constantly check the skin of the hospitalized patient.

  • Change position every two hours during the day.

  • Elevate (relief bony prominences) the patient’s limbs.

  • Clean and wrinkle-free sheets

  • Moisturize the skin, once a day.

  • Use silicone or foam devices to relieve body pressure (pressure relief pillows).

  • Apply hyperoxygenated fatty acids 2 times a day on bony prominences every 12 hours.

Management of wet skin lesions (DAI) dermatitis associated with incontinence:

  • Assess the patient’s skin at risk (of extreme care).

  • Manage incontinence (frequent diaper changes, urinary or rectal catheter care).

  • Sanitize the inguinal, genital, perianal or affected regions.

  • Use zinc oxide cream, skin barrier spray.

  • Dry gently without friction.

Prevention of injuries caused by health or hospital adhesives (MARSI)

  • Identify risks, history of allergies, skin type, pre-existing anomalies.

  • Choosing correct adhesives such as tapes, dressings, electrodes, etc. according to the initial assessment.

  • Use adhesive removers and skin barriers to protect your skin.

  • Use the correct 180-degree angle pulling technique, pulling the skin.

  • Keep the skin clean.

It is important to emphasize that the key is prevention, and adherence to the institution’s protocols, which is why it is essential to educate healthcare staff, patients and family members from their admission. Good care prevents more serious injuries, reduces infections, visits to the doctor, and increases the quality of life not only for the patient but for the family.

This article had the advice of Sandra Gutiérrez Olivares and Paola Múrcia González, nurses from the Healthy Skin and Wound Clinic Program of the Shaio Clinic.

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