Difference between flora and fauna

Flora and fauna are the living things that are part of an ecosystem.

Flora refers to plant species, while fauna is the term used to categorize animals.

There is flora and fauna in almost everyone. Each set of plant and animal species responds to specific characteristics according to the geographical and climatic conditions of the region where they develop. These organisms have evolved and adapted to their environment.

Both flora and fauna are essential to maintain the balance in nature. In many cases, symbiotic relationships are established between the two groups to ensure survival and, therefore, the prolongation of the existence of the ecosystem where they live together.

Flora Fauna
Definition They are all plant species that are part of an ecosystem. They are all animal species that are part of an ecosystem.
  • Native flora.
  • Agricultural flora.
  • Wildlife.
  • Domesticated fauna.
  • Orchid (Orchidaceae).
  • Pi (Pinus).
  • Carnivorous aquatic plant (Aldrovanda vesiculosa).
  • Fused card (Cirsium arvense).
  • The Musganyo (Suncus etruscus).
  • California Tiger Salamander (California Ambystoma).
  • Flying Lizard (Draco ruffles).
  • European Common Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)


flora and fauna, flower, cherry tree
Wild cherry (Prunus avium), a plant species native to Europe and western Asia.

Flora are all plant species that are part of the ecosystem of a given region, either because they grow spontaneously in this place or because they have been cultivated by human action.

The term includes plants with or without flowers, seeds or fruits, aquatic plant species and any plant that contributes to shaping the vegetation of a geographical area.

Although flora and vegetation are often used as synonyms, the reality is that flora refers only to species and vegetation in the distribution of these species in a given space.

The term flora comes from the Latin of the same name, which refers to the name of the goddess of spring.

Type of flora

There are two major classifications of flora

Native flora or native flora

It refers to plant species that are native to a particular geographical region, as they grow naturally there.

Examples of native floraa: la Japanese camelliaa flowering shrub native to Japan.

Agricultural flora

They are the plant species that have been introduced to a region by human action.

Examples of agricultural flora: the cultivation of tea in Argentina. The tea tree (Camellia sinensis) is not native to this area, the seeds were grown there for commercial purposes.

For a long time there was a third classification called flora arvense, which was used to group plants considered weeds. However, the category became obsolete as it was confirmed that these species play a role in the ecosystem in which they live.

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Fauna is the whole set of animal species that live in a given geographical area in the same period.

As with flora, different types of relationships are established in the fauna (symbiotic, competitive) that are essential to maintain balance in nature.

Type of fauna

wildlife, red macaw
Scarlet Macaw (Now macau), a species of wild bird from Central and South America.

There are two types of wildlife:


Also known as wildlife, it is all species of animals that are native to the region where they are found.

Examples of wildlife: the gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) and the scarlet macaw (Now macau) are native species of Mexico.

Domesticated fauna

These are animal species introduced by humans to a geographical area of ​​which they are not native. Generally, these actions are carried out for economic purposes in the agricultural and livestock sector and do not generate serious consequences.

In other cases, the introduced species end up creating an imbalance in the ecosystem and are known as invasive species. These introductions can be deliberate or accidental, but in any case once they occur they are very difficult to eradicate.

Examples of domesticated fauna: Cattle, which were introduced to the world from the Middle East for commercial purposes.

An example of an invasive species is the salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). It was introduced to the United States as bait for fishing trips and became a threat to the native salamander (California Ambystoma).

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