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60 examples of the most common acids and bases (with formulas)

The acids are compounds that accept electrons or donate protons (H+) in aqueous solutions and the bases are compounds that give electrons, accept protons (H+) or release hydroxyl ions (OH-) in aqueous solutions.

Below are examples of commonly used acids and bases, learn which are strong or weak acids and which are strong or weak bases.

30 examples of the most common acids

In our daily life we ​​can find acidic substances in the home. Here are examples of acids with your formulas.

Examples of acids used daily

Many of the acids found in the home are part of the acids in food, medicine and cleaning products.

1. Acetic acid or ethanoic acid CH3COOH is the weak organic acid found in the vinegar we use in salads.

2. Acetylsalicylic acid c9H8O4: it is the active principle of aspirin, a medicine that is used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

3. Ascorbic acid c6H8O6: is the common name for vitamin C, which is found in fruits and vitamin supplements and is involved in healing and collagen synthesis.

4. Boric acid H3GOOD3 is a weak acid that is used as an insecticide, antiseptic and flame retardant.

5. Butyric acid CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH or butanoic acid is the fatty acid present in butter.

6. Carbonic acid H2Co3 is the acid found in fizzy drinks.

7. Citric acid c6H8O7 is an organic acid present in some fruits and intermediary of cellular metabolism. The IUPAC name for citric acid is 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid.

8. Clavulanic acid c8H9NO5 is a drug that is used in combination with antibiotics of the penicillin family. Its effect is to block the bacterial enzymes that destroy the antibiotic.

9. Folic acid c19H19N7O6 is an organic acid that is obtained from the leaves of plants and is required in the synthesis of nucleic acids. The IUPAC name of folic acid is (2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-hidroxipteridin-6-il-) metil] amino} phenyl) formate]pentanedioic.

10. Hyaluronic acid c33H54N2O23 is a derivative of glucose, a glycosaminoglycan, found in connective tissues. It is used in skin creams.

11. Oleic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH is a fatty acid present in animal and vegetable fats, especially olive oil.

12. Oxalic acid c2H2O4 or ethanedioic acid is a dicarboxylic acid obtained from spinach leaves.

13. Uric acid c5H4N4O3 is a diprotic acid product of the metabolism of nucleic acids. Its excess in the blood is known as hyperuricemia.

14. Tartaric acid HOOC-CHOH-CHOH-COOH or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid is found in fruits such as grapes and bananas. It is used in cooking to regulate the acidity of food.

Examples of acidic substances in chemistry and biology

15. Arachidonic acid c20H32O2 or eicosatetraenoic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid found in cell membranes and is the precursor of prostaglandins.

16. Lactic acid H3C-COH-COOH is a weak organic acid product of glucose metabolism by lactobacteria, to produce yogurt.

17. Retinoic acid c20H28O2 is an acid product of vitamin A metabolism.

18. Linoleic acid c18H32O2 is an unsaturated fatty acid from which arachidonic acid is synthesized. It is found in walnuts and flax.

19. Glutamic acid HOOC-CH(NH2)-(CH2)2-COOH is an acidic amino acid that is part of proteins.

20. Aspartic acid HOOC-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH is an acidic amino acid that is part of proteins.

21. Sulhydric acid H2S is a volatile acid that is produced by the metabolism of bacteria under anaerobic conditions and is also present in volcanic gases.

22. Ribonucleic acid RNA is a biological macromolecule that participates in the transmission of genetic information to synthesize proteins. Its acid character is given by the phosphate groups found in the chain.

23. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a nucleic acid, the molecule that contains the genetic information of cells.

You may be interested in knowing the difference between strong and weak acids and bases.

Examples of strong acids

Strong acids are those compounds that ionize completely, that is, they give up their proton completely to form an anion or negative ion.

24. Hydrochloric acid HCl.

25. Chloric acid HClO3

26. Perchloric acid HClO4

27. Sulfuric acid H2SO4: used in batteries.

28. Hydrofluoric acid HF.

29. Nitric acid GNO3.

30. Hydrobromic acid HBr.

You may be interested in knowing the characteristics of acids and bases.

30 examples of the most common bases

Examples of bases for daily use

At home we use bases and other alkaline substances for different purposes. Let’s see some examples.

1. Acetone or propanone H3(CO)CH3 it behaves as a base as it donates electrons. It is used in the home as a solvent and in cleaning.

2. Ammonia NH3, it is used to clean ovens.

3. Caffeine c8H10N4O2 is a weak base stimulant of the central nervous system, found in coffee, tea and some stimulant drinks.

4. Aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 is a base that is used in medicines to relieve gastric acidity by reacting with stomach HCl.

5. Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 is a base used in antacids.

6. Bicarbonate ion HCO3 is the conjugate base of carbonic acid. It is used in the home to clean and in the kitchen as an ingredient in baking powder.

7. Tartrate ion c4H4O62- is the conjugate base of tartaric acid. It is used as an antioxidant additive in the food industry and is part of cream of tartar.

8. Urea H2N(CO)NH2 or carbamide is a weak base found in urine.

Examples of bases in chemistry and biology

9. Adenine c5H5N5 is a base derived from purine that is part of DNA and RNA.

10. Aniline c6H5NH2 is an aromatic amine, a weak base that is used as a precursor to paracetamol and synthetic dyes such as indigo.

11. Arginine c6H14N4O2 is a basic amino acid that is part of proteins.

12. Lysine H2N(CH2)4CH(NH2)COOH is a basic amino acid that is part of proteins.

13. Pyridine c5H5N is a heterocyclic base, used as an alkaline solvent and as a precursor to insecticides.

14. Purine c5H4N4 is a basic organic compound found in large quantities in red meats.

15. Thymine c3H6N2O2 is a nitrogenous base that is part of deoxyribonucleic acid.

16. Cytosine c4H5N3O is a nitrogenous base derived from pyrimidine that is part of DNA and RNA.

17. Guanine c5H5N5O is a nitrogenous base derived from purine that is part of nucleic acids.

18. Uracilus c4H4N2O2 is a nitrogenous base derived from pyrimidine found in RNA.

Examples of strong bases

Strong bases are those that ionize easily. The strongest bases are those formed with the alkali and alkaline earth metals.

19. Lithium hydroxide LiOH.

20. Sodium hydroxide NaOH.

21. Potassium hydroxide KOH.

22. Ammonium hydroxide NH4OH

23. Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2.

24. Barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2.

25. Beryllium hydroxide Be(OH)2.

26. Strontium hydroxide Sr(OH)2.

27. Hydroxide of zinc Zn(OH)2.

28. Iron hydroxide II Fe(OH)2.

29. Iron hydroxide III Fe(OH)3.

30. Sodium methoxide CH3ONo+.

You may be interested in knowing the difference between an acid and a base.

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