14 examples of chemical reactions

A chemical reaction happens when one or more compounds are combined or transformed into completely different compounds.

Chemical reactions are everywhere, not only in the specialized laboratories of industries, but also in the kitchen, in the environment and in the body.

Below we show you examples of chemical reactions that you will be able to recognize in your everyday life.

1. Combustion reaction of cooking gas

a kitchen flame due to the reaction of the gas with the oxygen in the air

Propane C3H8 is an organic compound that reacts with oxygen O2 of air to produce carbon dioxide CO2water vapor H2Or the energy used to heat food.

style size 16px bold C subscript bold 3 bold H subscript bold 8 bold plus bold 5 bold O subscript bold 2 bold right arrow bold 3 bold CO subscript bold 2 bold plus bold black Bold

2. Oxide-reduction reaction of performance batteries

Car batteries are made of lead oxide PbO2 and sulfuric acid H2SO4. These react giving rise to an electric current necessary to turn on the interlocutory.

The reaction that occurs results in lead sulfate PbSO4 and water:

style size 16px bold PbO subscript bold 2 bold plus bold H subscript bold 2 bold SO subscript bold 4 bold right arrow bold PbSO subscript bold 4 bold plus bold H subscript bold 2 bold O fine style

3. Stomach acid neutralization reaction with antacids

Stomach acid is hydrochloric acid HCl. Some antacids contain magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2. In the stomach, hydrochloric acid is neutralized with magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium chloride and water in an acid-base reaction:

bold Mg bold left parenthesis bold OH bold right parenthesis bold subscript 2 bold plus bold 2 bold HCl bold right arrow bold MgCl subscript bold 2 bold plus bold 2 bold H subscript bold 2 bold O

4. Reaction of vinegar and eggshell

Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid CH3COOH, which is a weak organic acid. The egg shell is made of calcium carbonate CaCO3. When we place an egg with vinegar, we can observe the appearance of bubbles (carbon dioxide) and after a while the shell loses its rigidity.

The reaction that occurs between calcium carbonate and acetic acid produces calcium acetate CH3COOCa and carbon dioxide CO2:

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5. Combustion of ethanol

Ethyl alcohol or ethanol can be used as fuel. In countries such as the United States and Brazil, fossil fuels are being replaced by ethanol as part of measures to reduce greenhouse gases. The reaction that occurs is:

bold C subscript bold 2 bold H subscript bold 5 bold OH bold plus bold 3 bold O subscript bold 2 bold right arrow bold 2 bold CO subscript bold 2 bold plus bold 3 bold H subscript black

6. Reaction of hydrogen peroxide to wounds

When we have a wound and put hydrogen peroxide on it, we almost immediately notice the appearance of bubbles. This happens because in the blood cells we have an enzyme called catalase, which speeds up the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen:

bold 2 bold H subscript bold 2 bold O subscript bold 2 bold right arrow with bold Catalase over bold 2 bold H subscript bold 2 bold O bold space bold plus bold O subscript bold 2

7. Addition reactions for LEGO

LEGO blocks

A polymer is a substance composed of many smaller molecules joined together. These are produced by addition reactions. For example, the polymer Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene or ABS is the substance from which LEGO blocks and also 3D printed products are built.

The reaction takes place between styrene, butadiene and acrylonitrile:

bold H subscript bold 2 bold C bold equal bold CHC subscript bold 6 bold H subscript bold 5 bold plus bold space bold CH subscript bold 2 bold equal bold CH bold minus bold space bold CH subscript CH subscript bold 2 bold equal bold CHC bold identical bold N bold right arrow bold space bold left parenthesis bold C subscript bold 8 bold H subscript bold 8 bold.  bold C subscript bold 4 bold H subscript bold 6 bold.  bold C subscript bold 3 bold H subscript bold 3 bold N bold right parenthesis bold subscript n space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space space bold styrene bold space bold plus bold space bold butadiene bold space bold plus bold acrylonitrile bold right arrow bold Polymer bold space bold ABS

8. Ozone formation reaction

Ozone O3 is a compound that is abundant in the stratosphere, one of the layers of the Earth’s atmosphere. This compound prevents the entry of harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Ozone results from the combination of molecular oxygen O2 and elemental oxygen:

bold O subscript bold 2 bold plus bold O bold right arrow with bold Rays bold space bold UV over bold space bold O subscript bold 3

9. Degradation reaction of milk sugar

Milk contains a sugar, lactose, made up of galactose and glucose. Human beings possess an enzyme, lactase, which is responsible for accelerating the chemical reaction of breaking down lactose as follows:

style size 16px bold C subscript bold 12 bold H subscript bold 22 bold O subscript bold 11 bold bold right arrow Lactase over bold Galactose bold space bold more bold space bold Glucose fine style

Some people lose this enzyme when they become adults, so they no longer have the ability to produce milk.

10. Neutralization reaction

Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 is a weak base that when it reacts with hydrochloric acid HCl produces the salt sodium chloride NaCl, carbon dioxide CO2 and water H2Or:

bold HCl bold space bold plus bold space bold NaHCO subscript bold 3 bold space bold right arrow bold space bold NaCl bold space bold plus bold H subscript bold 2 bold O bold space bold plus bold CO subscript bold 2

For this reason, when we drink water with bicarbonate, we can feel stomach discomfort due to the gas produced in this reaction.

11. Esterification reaction

Esters are organic compounds with fruity odors. In manufactured food products these compounds are used to give flavor. It is much cheaper to chemically produce the esters than to extract them from the fruits that produce them.

For example, the smell of banana is due to pentiletanoate. This ester is produced from the reaction of ethanoic acid and pentanol, in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst:

bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold CH subscript 3 bold COOH bold space bold space bold space bold more bold space bold space bold C subscript bold space bold 1 bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold right arrow with bold H subscript bold 2 bold SO subscript bold 4 above bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold space bold COOC subscript bold 5 bold H subscript bold 11 bold plus bold H subscript bold 2 bold O bold acid bold space bold ethanoic bold space bold plus bold space bold pentanol bold right arrow with bold acid space bold sulfuric above bold Pentytheloanoate bold space bold more bold space bold water

12. Baking powder reaction

spongy muffins due to the reaction of tartaric acid and bicarbonate

Baking powder and leavening flour contain among their ingredients tartaric acid COOH(CHOH)2COOH and sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3. When the temperature is raised when baking or cooking a recipe with these compounds, the reaction occurs with the release of carbon dioxide, which causes the cakes to rise:

style size 16px bold COOH bold left bracket bold CHOH bold right bracket subscript bold 2 bold COOH bold space bold plus bold space bold NaHCO subscript bold 3 bold right arrow with bold heat on bold 2 bold CO sub H subscript bold 2 bold O bold plus bold Na subscript bold 2 bold left parenthesis bold COO bold left parenthesis bold CHOH bold right parenthesis bold subscript 2 bold COO bold right parenthesis fine style

13. Ocean acidification reaction

Carbon dioxide CO2 of the atmosphere dissolves in the water of the oceans and can react to form carbonic acid:

bold CO subscript bold 2 bold plus bold space bold H subscript bold 2 bold O bold right arrow over left arrow bold H subscript bold 2 bold CO subscript bold 3

This reaction is responsible for the decrease in the pH of the oceans, which implies alterations in the marine ecosystem.

14. Corrosion reaction of iron

Corrosion of ferrous materials is accelerated in wet conditions. Iron and oxygen in the air react in the presence of water in an oxidation-reduction type reaction. The oxide that forms is hydrated iron oxide Fe2O3.H2Or:

bold 2 bold Fe bold plus bold space bold O subscript bold 2 bold plus bold H subscript bold 2 bold O bold right arrow bold Fe subscript bold 2 bold O subscript bold 3 bold.  bold H subscript bold 2 bold O

You may also be interested in seeing:

References

Commons, C., Commons, P (editors) (2020). Heinemann Chemistry 1, 5th ed. Pearson Australia. Melbourne.

Moore, JT (2011) Chemistry for Dummies 2nd ed. Wiley Publishing. Indiana.

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